PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION

1. The learner should be biological prepared applies to the law of

            a. Readiness

            b. Exercise

            c. Effect

            d. Practice

2. Which of the following not support the concept of individual difference?

            a. Use varied activities for a difficult lesson

            b. Consider the uniqueness of each student

            c. Involve all students regardless of what the activity is

            d. Help should be extended to both the gifted and retarded learners

3. Mr. David would like to increase the abilities of his students to solve more complex problems. What must Mr. David do?

            a. Correct all wrong answer at all time

            b. Increase practice with simple problems

            c. Reduce stimulation so as to increase attention to the task

            d. Problems match appropriately to students’ level of thinking

4. Which of the following statements is false about motivation?

            a. A force that energizes, sustains and direct behaviour toward a goal

b. Sometimes referred to as the “go of personality” in that its absence usually reduces most   normal people to state of listlessness and apathy

5. The following are specific strategies for memory enhancement. Which one is not?

            a. Use mnemonic device

            b. Over learn the material

            c. Sleep before studying

            d. Distribute, study and practice new materials

6. Which of the following statements is false?

a. Critical thinking is a process, the goal of which is to make reasonable decision about what to believe and what to do

b. Creative thinking is the generation of thoughts, ideas, decisions and actions often by novel and unexpected means

            c. Metacognition is the capacity to monitor and regulates one’s own thinking or                    mental activity

            d. None of the above

7. Which phase in observational learning refers to – although observer acquires and retains ability to perform the modelled behaviour, there will be no overt performances unless conditions are favourable?

            a. Attention

            b. Retention

            c. Motivational process

            d. Motor reproduction process

8. Which of the following best described what meaningful learning is?

            a. When what is to be learned is new and easy for the students

            b. Materials presented are difficult and challenging to the students

            c. When the materials to be learned is related to what students already know

            d. Students find the lesson easy and relevant to what was assigned to them

9.Which of the following principles of learning applies to considering student’s age in presenting certain content and cognitive process?

            a. Principle of readiness

            b. Principle of learning by doing

            c. Principle of presenting challenging tasks

            d. Principle of learning aided by formulating and asking questions

10. Which the usual manner of doing things is lost, the process is called

            a. Habituation

            b. Extinction

            c. Demolition

            d. None of the above

11. There are six levels in cognitive development moving through the lowest process to the highest 1. Knowledge 2. Application 3. Synthesis 4. Analysis 5. Comprehension 6. Evaluation

            a. 1 – 5 – 2 – 4 – 3 – 6

            b. 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6

            c. 1 – 3 – 5 – 2 – 4 – 6

            d. 1 – 4 – 2 – 3 – 5 – 6

12. Which principle underlies cognitive learning?

            a. Prior knowledge can help or hinder learning

            b. Meaningful engagement is necessary for deeper learning

            c. Motivation generates, directs and sustains learning behaviour

            d. All of the above

13. Which of the following motivation is false?

            a. External motivation is longer lasting and more self-directive than internal                          motivation

            b. Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional material is                           organized

            c. Motivation to perform is affected by expectancy and value

            d. Internal motivation is fuelled by one’s goal or ambition

14. Which is not characteristic of metacognitive thinker/

            a. Has a realistic self – concept

            b. Able to make plans for himself

            c. Able to set short – term and long – term goals

            d. Propose solutions to problems

15. The following are stages in learning psychomotor skills. Which one is not?

            a. Planning stage

            b. Cognitive stage

            c. Organizing stage

            d. Perfecting stage

16. Which of the following is not included in affective learning?

            a. Attitudes

            b. Beliefs

            c. Values

            d. Ambitions

17. Which of the following will enhance the learning of pre-schoolers?

            a. Always give reward and never punish

            b. Activate should be hands – on and not written

            c. Use colourful, attractive and challenging materials

            d. Make activities too easy, simple and for a short period of time

 

18. Maturation should precede certain types of learning. How is this applied in the classroom?

            a. Follow the interest of the students in assigning tasks

            b. Concepts should be taught from simple to complex

            c. Consider age level of student in teaching certain concepts

            d. Give the same tasks to all students in a particular grade level

19. Why should teacher provide positive feedback and realistic praise?

            a. To motivate the students to study

            b. So the students will know what to do

            c. To be liked and loved by the students

            d. So the students will praise him/her

20. Which statement does not refer to cognitive theories?

            a. Prefer to concentrate on analysing cognitive process

            b. Conclusions are based on observation of external manifestations of learning

            c. Study of the structures and components of information processing

            d. Believe in the non-observable behaviour

21. Which of the following is an application of classical conditioning in the classroom?

a. A first grade teacher greets each of the students with a smile when they come into the room in the morning

            b. The teacher checks the given assignment everyday

            c. The monitoring of absences is done by the class secretary

            d. Cleanliness and orderliness of the room is a must in the classroom of Miss                      Cruz

22. Which of the following principles apply in this situation? Teacher presented a new lesion wherein the students were asked to work on a new project which was somewhat complicated. The students showed while working on it?

            a. Effort is put forth when tasks are challenging

            b. Lessons should be presented in varied and different ways

            c. Meaningful materials are ready learned than nonsense materials

            d. Teachers should provide opportunities for meaningful and appropriate practice

23. All except one is not a characteristic of Skinner’s reinforcement and operant conditioning. Which one is not?

            a. Stressed the consequences in behaviour in order to learn

b. Proved that reinforcement is a powerful tool in shaping and controlling behaviour in and out of the classroom

c. Emphasize the greater influence of the environment on learning and behaviour that is either to reinforce or eliminate

            d. None of the above

24. What should a teacher do to help students learn psychomotor?

a. Teacher uses verbal explanation and description of the movement in addition to live demonstration of the movements

            b. Teacher provides feedback to the learner about his/her progress

            c. Teacher encourage the learner to practice, in order to maintain his/her                              sharpness

            d. All of the above

25. Which is an application of cognitive approach to motivation?

            a. Explain the reasons for studying the topic

            b. Create a supportive classroom climate for students

            c. Provide clear and prompt feedback on assignment

            d. Begin lessons with challenging question and conditioning events

26. Which theory operates in stimulus response principle, which means all behaviour are caused by external stimuli?

            a. Contextualist theory

            b. Behaviourist theory

            c. Cognitive theory

            d. Constructive theory

27. Teacher, Angelo a SPED teacher, before introducing a new lesson, helps his highly functioning ADHD students build the prerequisite knowledge since prior knowledge is essential for the comprehension of new information. What learning theory is associated in the situation?

            a. Social learning theory

            b. Information processing

            c. Dual – coding learning theory

            d. Scheme learning theory

28. Ms. Erika in her Biology class accompanies her discussion with interesting visual aids.

            a. Social cognitive theory

            b. Dual coding theory

            c. Information processing approach

            d. Meaning reception learning theory

29. Margot, a 3 year old girl, applies make-up on her face, gets her mom’s bag, wears her shoes and starts walking around the receiving room as soon as her mom left for work. What theory explains such?

            a. Contextual theory

            b. Cognitive theory

            c. Social learning

            d. Constructivist theory

30. Which of the following learning theories is Thorndike states that an organism learns by doing and forget by not doing, in other words, it refers to the law of use and law of disuse?

            a. Law of effect

            b. Law of set and attitudes

            c. Law of readiness

            d. Law of exercise

31. Which of the following learning theories explained on zone of proximal development? (ZPD) wherein the gap between actual and potential development should be mediated?

            a. Social cognitive

            b. Social constructivism

            c. Cognitive construction

            d. Cognitive behaviour modification

32. Mr. Castro patiently teaches his son, John, on it, Mr. Castro gradually detaches himself to the bike then John afterwards could now ride his bike on his own, what has been practiced in the situation?

            a. Learning

            b. Scaffolding

            c. Knowing

            d. Understanding

33. Who among the proponents of theories of learning was known for his Bobo Doll experiment wherein children imitated what they have witnessed regarding the treatment given to Bobo doll?

            a. Albert Bandura

            b. Julian Rotter

            c. Ivan Pavlov

            d. Burrhus Skinner

34. What theory explains the interlocking of one system to another system wherein if the relationship in the immediate system breaks down, the child will not have the tools to explore other parts of his environment resulting behavioural deficiencies?

            a. Contextual theory

            b. Constructivism theory

            c. Behaviourism theory

            d. Cognitive theory

35. Which of the following best describes what meaningful learning is?

            a. When what is to be learned is new and easy for the students

            b. Materials presented are difficult and challenging to the students

            c. When the materials to be learned is related to what students already know

            d. Students find the lessons easy and relevant to what was assigned to them

36. Ms. Cruz, after learning the statements made by her colleague toward their newly appointed principal, she is carefully deliberating of whether to accept, reject or suspend judgement in such claim. What type of thinking Ms. Cruz has?

            a. Creative thinking

            b. Critical thinking

            c. Reflective thinking

            d. Logical thinking

37. The class of Mr. Ventura read the book entitled “the reader”. After which he divided the class into two groups and asked each group to write and perform a play based on the story. The group who performed better is exempted to take the long quiz. What cognitive domain is manifested?

            a. Evaluation

            b. Knowledge

            c. Analysis

            d. Synthesis

38. Mr. Tan is a man with principles. He sees to it that he assesses correctly his statements using analysis and logic before disclosing his evaluation to his subordinates. Mr. Tan is manifesting what type of thinking?

            a. Creative thinking

            b. Critical thinking

            c. Reflective thinking

            d. Logical thinking

39. One of Mr. Azur members in the dance troupe collapsed during their rehearsal for their upcoming competition in Seoul, Korea. What should Mr. Azur do with the student?

            a. Ignores the student and go on with the rehearsal

            b. Pull – out the student and bring her/him at the backstage

            c. Do not allow him/her anymore to join the composition

            d. Give him/her first aid

40. According to this cognitive theory, the individual teams when the human mind takes in information, perform operation in it, stores the information and retrieves it when needed

            a. Meaningful reception

            b. Cumulative learning

41. Learning is used to be meaningful when new information is related to what the learner already know. What theory supports such statements?

            a. Cognitive behaviour modification

            b. Information processing

            c. Cumulative learning

            d. Meaningful reception

42. If refers to the acquisition of fine and gross motor skills in conjunction with muscular development as they relate to the mental process

            a. Cognitive learning

            b. Affective learning

            c. Psychomotor learning

            d. Social learning

43. Teacher Mila prepared the materials for this laboratory class in chemistry. She instructed the team leader in every group to start along with the members of the group. Teacher Mila allows her students to construct their own knowledge through direct experience and enable them to create scheme. What theory is displayed in the given situation?

            a. Albert Banduro’s Social Learning Theory

            b. Urie Brofenbrenner’s Ecological System Theory

            c. Jean Piaget’s cognitive constructivist

            d. Lev Vygotsky’s Social constructivism

44. When the nature of situation has a significant effect on the process of learning, this statements is supported by what theory?

            a. Learning modalities

            b. Individual Differences in learning

            c. Situated learning

            d. Learning styles

45. Like nature vs. nurture, heredity and environment plays a significant role in the learning process. He proposed that environmental context has interrelated major levels. But if the relationship in the immediate system breaks down, the child will not have the tools to explore parts of his/her environment resulting to behavioural and academic deficiencies.

            a. William Kohler

            b. Robert Gagne

            c. David Ausubel

            d. Urie Brofenbrenner

46. Schools and teachers should work to support the primary relationship of the child can create an environment that welcomes family relationship. What could be the best activities that would demonstrate strong relationship and close collaboration between home and school?

            a. Giving of report card and outing

            b. Parent-conferencing and ticket selling

            c. Home visitation and parent – conferencing

            d. Telephone brigade and interview

47. It explain the gap between actual and potential development wherein the former refers to what children can do on their own, while the latter refers to what children can do with help

            a. Scaffolding

            b. Zone of proximal development

            c. Assimilation

            d. Accommodation

48. Joy, a sophomore high school student from Sto. Tomas School was well – known for her abilities to show case her talent during the sophomore night and has the most number of acquaintances because of her start a conversation with her peers. Joy has the intelligence of

            a. Interpersonal

            b. Intrapersonal

            c. Naturalist

            d. Existentialist

49. It is an instructional process in which the teacher adjusts the amount and type of support offered to the child to suit the child’s abilities, withdrawing the support as the child becomes more skilled.

            a. Scaffolding

            b. Zone of proximal development

            c. Assimilation

            d. Accommodation

50. One of the requirements of teacher Carmel in her class in a case study. She group her class into four and asked each group to prepare a case to present their view about homosexuality. What cognitive domain is displayed?

            a. Evaluation

            b. Knowledge

            c. Synthesis

            d. Analysis

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