- Direct instruction- directed and teacher dominated. It is meant for the teaching of skills.
- Explain the rationale and objectives of the lesson. Inform the students about the entire procedure and how long the lesson will take.
- Provide motivation and draw commitments from them.
- Conduct the demonstration. Much of the learning will be achieved by observing others rather than by trial-and-error.
- Assign practice for short period of time. Continue practice to the pointy of over learning for complete mastery.
- Provide feedback, videotaping of performance, tests or written comments.
- Focus on performance evaluation rather than on pencil-and paper-testy. The student should be able to exhibit the skill mastered.
- Cooperative Learning- is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal.
- Make sure that the students exhibit the necessary social skills to work cooperatively in group situations.
- Arrange furniture so that groups of students can sit facing each other during sessions. Provide adequate space for ease and speed in movement.
- Provide adequate learning tools so as not to make others wait at a time they are needed.
- Encourage students to assume responsibility for individual and group learning by offering rewards for achievement.
- Make sure each group understands the goal, procedures, tasks and methods of evaluation.
- Role Playing- the spontaneous acting-out of a situation or incident by selected individuals. Used as a basis for developing clearer insights into people's feelings, and the forces in a situation that facilitate or block good human relations.
- The facilitator or group chooses an appropriate situation or problem.
- Define the problem
- Create a readiness for the role(s)
- Establish the situation
- Cast the characters
- Brief and warm up
- Consider the training
- Involving the audience
- Analyzing the discussion
- Picture Making- A way of bringing out ideas or principles on a topic by means of simple illustrations made by group members on a blackboard or large chart paper.
- The facilitator and planning-group members select general principles or questions which would be suitable to illustrate.
- Teacher divides the group into four or five subgroups.
- Each subgroup is given a statement or problem to illustrate.
- After completing the picture making, each group shows and explains its picture.
- Followed by a discussion.
- The facilitator must clearly state the value of picture-making and supply adequate materials.
- Media and Audio-visual Material (Innovative Educational Learning strategy)
- Media and audio-visual material is employed as a means of presenting information. Used when information from various sources is available for group presentation. Students can also be asked to bring relevant newspaper clippings to class over a period of time which discuss or study a topic.
- The facilitator views the material in advance for appropriateness and to devise questions for participants. Specific methods include: television programs, song lyrics, videotapes, audiotapes, pictures, slides, films, film strips, three-dimensional models, posters, demonstration objects, overhead transparencies, multi-media presentations using computers, photos, board displays and diagrams, flip chart papers.
- The class views the presentation and follows with discussion, role-play, etc.
- The facilitator must spend time reviewing the material prior to class presentation. Special equipment is often needed and must be arranged prior to class time.
- Team Teaching- A way of bringing new ideas and people into the classroom. Similar to guest speakers, but the speaker is involved in the class for more than one session. Used When two or more facilitators can effectively combine their interests and areas of expertise, and share the class time and work.
- Provide all the possible instructions for the activity.
- Group the students and give them the topic relevant to the topic.
- Give time limit for the discussion and while the class is going on, the facilitator should be aware of its learners’ behavior.
- After the discussion, call each of the groups’ representatives for the reporting.
- Demonstrations- a visual way of presenting information to a group; often supplements a written presentation or lecture. Used when a topic or idea will have more direct impact if presented visually.
- Demonstrators must be well selected.
- Make sure that the materials are easily available.
- Get ready the equipment to be used.
- The demonstrator must try several times.
- Arrange the observers around the demonstration area.
- Do the demonstration activity,
- Allow questions which bothered them during the demonstration.
- Examine the recorded data.
- Conclusion must be undertaken by the whole class.
- Assess learning by way of a short test, an oral or performance of one of the steps.
- Case Study
Description: An actual account of a particular incident and/or problem is presented to the class. How the matter was resolved is included.
When Used: When a specific example is the best means of illustrating a topic. This method is often used to supplement traditional lecture approaches to a topic. Can be used to synthesize ideas and apply theory to practical problems.
- provide an example to be emulated
- paint a particular person as a hero or a villain
- encourage (or discourage) a particularly type of behavior
- illustrate a pre-existing theory
- The facilitator documents a case study, altering actual names and places if required. The case study is presented to the class and is generally followed by a discussion.
- Case studies require additional work by the facilitator to ensure that they are straightforward and appropriate examples of what is being presented.
Know - What to Know - Learned is a strategy that is typically used to provide structure to the learning process to allow students to recall what they know about a topic, what they want to know about the topic and what is to be learned.
- Choose a text. This strategy works best with expository texts.
- Create a K-W-L chart. The teacher should create a chart on the blackboard or on an overhead transparency. In addition, the students should have their own chart on which to record information.
- Ask students to brainstorm words, terms, or phrases they associate with a topic. The teacher and students record these associations in the K column of their charts. This is done until students run out of ideas.
- Ask students what they want to learn about the topic. The teacher and students record these questions in the W column of their charts. This is done until students run out of ideas for questions. If students respond with statements, turn them into questions before recording them in the W column.
- Have students read the text and fill out the L column of their charts. Students should look for the answers to the questions in their W column. Students can fill out their L columns either during or after reading.
- Discuss the information that students recorded in the L column.
- Inquiry Approach- also called as discovery, or problem-solving approach. The teacher guides the students as they explore and discover.
- Arrange for an ideal room setting. After planning the learning activity for the day, structure the room in such a way that will allow freedom of movement. Chairs lined in a semi-circular manner id conducive to clear viewing and easy transfers around the area.
- Choose tools and equipment that can be manipulated.
- The materials to be examined or used must lend easily to the processes to be employed and the end product desired.
- The questions/problems should originate from them.
- Let the students plan the procedure of the test to be done.
- Require an evaluation of the steps undertaken as to its effectiveness and the clarity of the results.