Sickeningly Sweet

12

DIET DETAILS

Planning the Diabetic’s Meals

 

                If your doctor, dietician or health educator has helped you plan your diet, you may want to skip this chapter.

                On the other hand, if you want to know how a diabetic diet is planned, you may wish to read on. In fact, whether or not you have diabetes, you can use the following steps to find out what you should be eating each day:

 

1.Figure out your ideal body weight. Your doctor or nurse will likely tell you what your ideal weight is. Tables such as the one on the next page also provide an easy-to-see estimate of your ideal weight. But just in case you wish to calculate your ideal weight yourself, here is a general guideline.

 

 

Men:  At 5 feet (152cm.) tall = *110 pounds (50 kg.)

Women:  At 5 feet (152 cm.) tall = *105 pounds (47 kg.)

 

For every 1 inch over 5 feet tall, add 5 pounds.

For every 1 inch under 5 feet tall, subtract 5 pounds.

 

*These figures are for a person with a medium build.

If you have a large bone frame, add

10 percent; if you have a small bone frame, subtract 10-15 percent.

 

 

 

                For example, if a woman with a small bone frame is 5 feet 3 inches (160 cm.) tall, you could figure her ideal weight as follows:

 

A woman of 5 feet should be 105 pounds,

 

+ 3 inches x 5 pounds (add 15 pounds)

= 105 + 15 = 120

 

-10 percent for small frame (120 x .10 = 12)

= 120 – 12 = 108

 

                Her ideal weight is approximately 108 pounds (49 kg.).

 

 

 

 

 

Desirable Weight for Men

 

                                                                                Small                                     Medium                              Large

                Height                                                  Frame                                   Frame                                   Frame

 

Feet-Inches                         Cm.        Pounds                 Kg.         Pounds                 Kg.         Pounds                 Kg.

 

5              1                              155         126-132                58           129-139                60           136-148                63

 

5              2                              157.5     128-134                59           131-141                61           138-150                65

 

5              3                              160         130-136                60           133-143                62           140-153                66

 

5              4                              162.5     132-138                61           135-145                63           142-156                68

 

5              5                              165         134-140                62           137-148                64           144-160                69

 

5              6                              167.5     136-142                63           139-151                65           146-164                70

 

5              7                              170         138-145                64           142-154                67           149-168                72

 

5              8                              172.5     140-148                65           145-157                68           152-172                73

 

5              9                              175         142-151                67           148-160                70           155-176                74

 

5              10                           177.5     144-154                68           151-163                71           158-180                77

 

5              11                           180         146-157                69           154-166                72           161-184                79

 

6              0                              183         149-160                70           157-170                74           164-188                80

 

6              1                              185.5     152-164                72           160-174                76           168-190                81

 

6              2                              188         155-168                74           164-178                77           172-197                83

 

 

 

 

Desirable Weight for Women

 

                                                                                Small                                     Medium                              Large

                Height                                                  Frame                                   Frame                                   Frame

 

Feet-Inches                         Cm.        Pounds                 Kg.         Pounds                 Kg.         Pounds                 Kg.

 

4              10                           147.5     102-111                47           109-121                52           118-131                56

 

4              11                           150         103-113                49           111-123                53           120-134                57

 

5              0                              152.5     104-115                50           113-126                54           122-137                58

 

5              1                              155         106-118                51           115-129                55           125-140                60

 

5              2                              157.5     108-121                52           118-132                56           128-143                61

 

5              3                              160         111-124                53           121-135                58           131-147                63

 

5              4                              162.5     114-127                54           124-138                59           134-151                65

 

5              5                              165         117-130                56           127-141                61           137-155                67

 

5              6                              167.5     120-133                57           130-144                62           140-159                68

 

5              7                              170         123-136                59           133-147                63           143-163                69

 

5              8                              172.5     126-139                60           136-150                65           146-167                70

 

5              9                              175         129-142                61           139-153                66           149-170                72

 

5              10                           177.5     132-145                63           142-146                68           152-173                73

 

5              11                           180         135-148                64           145-159                69           155-176                74

 

 

 

2.Determine your level of activity. Decide how active you are in your daily work, whether you have “light activity”, “moderate activity” or “heavy activity”. The following lists may help to give you some idea of where you fit.

 

 

 

Light Activity

 

75 percent of your time sitting or standing and

only 25 percent moving around

 

office worker

sales clerk

taxi driver

tailor

most professionals—doctors, lawyers, accountants, architects

some teachers and students

unemployed men

housewives with mechanical appliances

 

 

Moderate Activity

 

25 percent of your time sitting or standing and

75 percent doing some work

 

hospital nurses

housewives who wash clothes and clean the floors by hand

waiters

carpenters

plumbers

fishermen

most farm workers and gardeners

soldiers not on active service

students who take physical education classes

some teachers

 

 

Heavy Activity

 

40 percent of your time standing or sitting and

60 percent doing some work

 

New army recruits

some soldiers in active service

some farm workers

unskilled laborers

construction workers

house painters

mine and steel workers

most full-time athletes

 

 

3.Figure out how many calories you need each day. After you know your ideal weight and your activity level, you can calculate your daily calorie needs as follows:

 

 

Daily Calorie Needs

 

Multiply your ideal body weight (in pounds) by 10.

 

Multiply your ideal body weight (in pounds)

by your activity level factor:

 

                                                                Light activity                       ------      x  3

               

                                                                Moderate activity            ------      x  5

 

                                                                Heavy activity                    ------      x 10

                For example, if a man is 5 feet 8 inches tall (173 cm.), his ideal body weight would be 150 pounds (68 kg.). If he is moderately active, you can figure out his daily calorie needs as follows:

 

Multiply his ideal body weight, 150, times 10:

 

150 x 10 = 1,500

 

Then multiply his ideal body weight, 150,

times his activity level factor,

5 (moderately active):

 

150 x 5 = 750

Add the two figures together for his total

daily calorie needs:

 

1,500 + 750 = 2,250 calories needed for the day.

 

 

                These guidelines are suitable for the average adult. Children and teenagers are usually more active, and so their calorie requirements must be adapted to their individual needs. Likewise, in their older years people often slow down, so calorie requirements are likely to become less with advancing age.

                Women who are pregnant or who are breastfeeding also have special needs. There are certain dangers in the old belief that a pregnant or nursing woman is “eating for two”. And yet she really does need more nutrition in order to meet the needs of a growing baby.

                During pregnancy, a woman should take an additional 300 calories each day. After deliver, if she is breastfeeding her baby, she should take 500 calories more than her usual daily requirement. These extra calories should be in the form of good, nutritious food, and should be balanced according to the recommended percentages of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

                If a woman is overweight and has been trying to lose weight, during pregnancy is not the time for dieting. She should eat the recommended number of calories during pregnancy and lactation, then go back onto her weight-reduction program after she stops breastfeeding her baby.

 

4.Calculate the amounts of carbohydrates, proteins and fats needed for one day. The table below summarizes the diabetic’s requirements of the various food types.

 

 

Percent of Calories

From Different Sources

 

Carbohydrates                                                                  55-60%

 

Proteins                                                                               15-20%

 

Fats                                                                                        *25-30%

 

*Many doctors recommend using a lower percentage of fats

and a higher percentage of carbohydrates.

                From this, we can figure out how many calories the diabetic would need to get from kind of food.

                Let us look at the example of a 55-year-old diabetic man who is 5 feet 6 inches tall (168 cm.), and who is unemployed and very inactive. Ideally his weight should be about 140 pounds (63.5 kg.), and he should be eating about 1,800 calories per day. Here’s how he should divide up his calories:

 

Carbohydrate:

60% of 1,800 calories = .60 x 1,800 = 1,080 calories

 

Protein:

15% of 1,800 calories = .15 x 1,800 = 270 calories

 

Fat:

25% of 1,800 calories = .25 x 1,800 = 450 calories

                                                                        ___________

 

                                                Total             1,800 calories

 

 

                If we wanted to know the weight of carbohydrate foods we could eat in a day, we would divide our carbohydrate calories by four because one gram of carbohydrate gives four calories. One gram of protein gives four calories, so we would divide the protein calorie limit by four to get our daily grams of protein. And since fat is high in calories, with nine calories for every gram, we would divide out fat calorie limit by nine.

Using the same man as our example again, we can calculate as follows:

 

Carbohydrates:

1,080 divided by 4            =             270 grams per day

 

Proteins

270 divided by 4                =             65-70 grams per day

 

Fats

450 divided by 9                =             50 grams per day

 

 

 

5.… Wait a minute! By now you’re probably thinking that this whole process is too much to cope with. This all sounds unbelievably complicated! How can a person ever figure out what to eat?

Certainly it is much too confusing and complicated to weigh every little bit of food you eat and then figure out how much of what foods you should eat. To simplify matters, the American Diabetes Association and other diabetes organizations have developed lists or groupings of “food exchanges” or “food portions”. Diet manuals are available from most diabetes associations showing lists and/or photographs of food exchanges or portions in a simplified manner.

        Each list contains foods which are of a similar type and provide about the same number of calories. Any food in a certain list can be exchanged, or substituted, for the specified amount of any other food in the same list. You may notice that the serving sizes vary from one food to the next. This is because foods are so different that they are measured or weighed to ensure that there is the same amount of carbohydrate, protein fat and calories in each food chosen.

 

5.(Let’s try again!) With a book of exchanges or portions in hand, figure out how many exchanges or portions of carbohydrate and protein you need for one day. Generally speaking, one carbohydrate exchange contains 10 grams of carbohydrates, and one protein exchange contains approximately six grams of protein.

This means that the man we’ve been using as our example, who should have about 270 grams of carbohydrate per day, should have 27 carbohydrate “exchanges” or portions”: (270 grams of carbohydrate needed per day divided by 10 grams per exchange = 27 exchanges). Since he needs 65-70 grams of protein per day, we divide that by six grams per exchange, and we see that he needs about 11-12 protein exchanges in a day.

What about his fat requirement of 50 grams per day? Some doctors do not consider fat in exchanges, especially for type II diabetes, because most people who have type II diabetes actually need to lose weight. The guideline for them is “Avoid free fat, such as butter, margarine, ghee, and other added fats.” The amount of fat your body actually needs is easily supplied by the natural fat in your foods and in the small amount of oil used for cooking. In fact, anyone who is overweight should eat less fried foods, and should steam, boil, or bake foods instead of frying them.

 

6.Plan how to distribute your carbohydrate and protein exchanges over the whole day’s meals and snacks. Using your exchange or portion lists, simply begin to plan your menu, including any snacks you may need. Just make sure that your daily total for carbohydrate and protein exchanges add up to your recommended amount.

You will soon learn to recognize portion or exchange sizes of all the foods you usually eat. Once you have mastered that, it will be relatively easy for you to quickly estimate how much you should take of each food—whether you are at home or whether you go out to eat.

 

7.Enjoy your meals! Dining diabetically—or even dining on a diet—can still be delicious and delightful.

 

 

 

 

Hits 342
Rate:

0 Comments

avatar